A Look at Virginians During Reconstruction


Books & Media:

America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War
Gilder Lehrman Institute
This exhibition is part of the Digital History site that contains an up-to-date U.S. history textbook; annotated primary sources on United States, Mexican American, and Native American history, and slavery; and succinct essays on the history of ethnicity and immigration, film, private life, and science and technology. The text is by Eric Foner, the DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University and renowned expert on Reconstruction, and Olivia Mahoney, Director of Historical Documentation at the Chicago Historical Society.

Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877
American Memory, Library of Congress
This Library of Congress exhibition contains succinct overviews of several aspects of the Civil War and Reconstruction and features primary sources, maps, and images.



Anderson, James. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York: Free Press, 1974.

Buck, J.L. Blair. The Development of Public Schools in Virginia, 1607-1952. Richmond: State Board of Education, 1952.

Foner, Eric. A Short History of Reconstruction. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.

Heatwole, Cornelius J. A History of Education in Virginia. New York: Macmillan, 1916.

Wood, Linda Sargent. “The Laurel Grove School: Educating the First Generation Born into Freedom.” Unpublished essay: Nov. 27, 2002.